一个适合ISP使用的Mail方案全英文

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邮件服务器之间常用邮件协议SMTP POP3 IMAP。 一、SMTP称为简单Mail传输协议(Simple Mail Transfer Protocal),目标是向用户提供高效、可靠的邮件传输。SMTP的一个重要特点是它能够在传送中接力传送邮件,即邮件可以通过不同网络上的主机接力式

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e-mail n. 电子邮件; vt. 给…发电子邮件; [例句]You can contact us by e-mail 你可以通过电子邮件和我们联系。 [其他] 第三人称单数:e-mails 复数:e-mails 现在分词:e-mailing过去式:e-mailed 过去分词:e-mailed

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邮件发送失败可能有以下原因: 1,邮件内容可能出现的问题: 由于邮件内容可能是直接复制的内容导致由于错误字符出现。出现不可读字符时邮件无法发送。即使手动在邮箱直接投递邮箱会提示有特殊字符出现不可发送. 解决办法:预览邮件模板内容,看

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搭建邮件服务器首要条件: 1.服务器:现在市面上的主流服务器的硬件配置都能支持邮件系统的运行,硬件最低配置:CPU为Pentium,硬盘3G,内存256M。软件要求:中英 文Win2003/2008操作系统,需打最新的补丁,英文版操作系统需安装亚洲字库。,对于拥

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题目么?现在已经完全不再需要向ISP申请了,而是可以向任意一个网络上的邮箱服务商申请,而且还很多是免费的。

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ISP Mailserver Solution Howto

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Author: Martin List-Petersen martin@list-petersen.dk

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The newest version of this document can allways be found at http://www.marlow.dk/postfix/

Version: 0.04

Created: May 11th, 2002

Last updated: May 15th, 2002

Acknowledgements: There has been many efforts out there to describe how to get a mailserver to work with storing tables, users and so on in databases, but most of the stuff found out there did only describe parts of, what was needed. So what i try, is to describe the setup, the way i did it. This is maybe not the solution you want, but it'll give you PRetty much insight in, how it can be done. This document describes a working solution, which is used in production on several hosting servers with multiple domains, but gives you no warranty on that it'll work for you. This document is provided as is.

Thanks to Ryan Skov for testing and the work spend on getting this setup together.

Purpose

The goals of this document:

- archive an ISP hosting solution that is dynamically and easy to manage.

- to get rid of different limitations in comparison to creating unix accounts for every mailuser.

- to archive the possibility for CRAM-md5 encryptet passWord challenges on POP and IMAP instead of cleartext.

- the domains hosted should be handled independant to each other (different namespaces for every domain).

- to be able to act as SMTP for clients without knowing their ip upfront, but still not being an open relay.

- scan mails for virus and notify hostmaster, sender and receiver on virus alerts.

Related Stuff:

- Postfix (MTA): http://www.postfix.org

- MySQL (sql server): http://www.mysql.com

- Courier-IMAP, POP3, SqWebMail (courier imap/pop3 servers and webmail, supporting maildirs): http://sourceforge.net/projects/courier/

- pam-mysql (pam plugin for storing auth data in mysql): http://sourceforge.net/projects/pam-mysql/

- sasl (client/server library for smtp auth): http://asg.web.cmu.edu/sasl/

- Amavis (wrapper script for virusscan): http://www.amavis.org

Packages which can be used on Debian:

postfix-mysql, postfix-tls

mysql-server

courier-imap, courier-pop, courier-authdaemon, courier-authmysql

libpam-mysql

libsasl7, libsasl-modules-plain

-- optionally courier-imap-ssl, courier-pop-ssl

-- optionally sqwebmail

-- optionally courier-maildrop, but the version in Debian has no MySQL support, needs recompile.

-- amavis has to be compiled by hand, no module found for that, but you will need the following packages:

file, bzip2, lha (min. rev. 1.14g), unarj, unzip, gzip, unrar, zoo,

perl-5.004, libio-stringy-perl, mailtools, libmime-perl, libmailtools-perl, libmime-base64-perl, libcompress-zlib-perl,

libnet-perl, libconvert-uulib-perl, libconvert-tnef-perl, tnef, libarchive-tar-perl, libarchive-zip-perl, libunix-syslog-perl

Also you will need arc, which can be found here: http://www.gws-online.de/download/arc_5.21e-5_i386.deb

The Background Story

The reason for this setup was quite simple. I wanted a solution, that was as flexible and easy to support as possible. To keep this as short and clear as possible, i'll take this in different parts.

- the user should have an easy login, like their complete email-address.

This does not polute the passwd file with thousands of different aliases and gives you as the system administrator a good view on, what customer you are talking to. Besides a customer knows nearly allways his email-address, since he uses it all the time. The username is easily forgotten. Another thing is, that you allways know the answer, if a customer can't remember his/her username.

- the password should be stored in plain text, not encryptet.

There are two reasons why this should be done. However, it's your choice. You have the ability to store it encryptet in the database, if you like that better.

The first reason is, that you'll be able to use CRAM-MD5 encryption for the password challenge. For this you need the plaintext password on both sides, since this is a one way encryption method.

The customers i know personally (and that are many of them) can give me a call and get their password on the phone, if they should forget it or so ...

- the smtp server should be used for smtp relay for accounts related on it.

There are several methods to archive that (pop-over-smtp, domain based relay, ip based relay and so on) without getting an open relay, but most of them require, that you know your customers location or requires him to authentificate on pop3 before being able to use smtp. I wanted to the smtp-auth feature, which is supported by most clients and i wanted to use the same username and password as on the pop3/imap server. Makes it easier for the customer to remember things. Also i didn't want to store the username in two places. I did choose pam-mysql for that, because the sasl-mysql patch out there is quite buggy. I managed to apply it and compiled the sasl lib afterwards, but couldn't get it to work. Pam-mysql works nice and does exactly fit my needs. Also in mind, that i can use it for ever i want afterwards (samba, shell-login .....)

- maildir is used for faster access to mails and a better structure, which mail is stored in.

Installation

Amavis

To configure Amavis:

./configure --enable-postfix --with-logdir=/var/log/amavis

--sysconfdir=/etc/amavis

--with-warnsender=/etc/amavis/template/sender

--with-warnrecip=/etc/amavis/template/recip

--with-warnadmin=/etc/amavis/template/admin

--with-amavisuser=vscan

--with-mailto=virusalert

--with-mailfrom=postmaster

- Documentation of this issue is not finished yet -

McAfee uvscan

The following Debian packages need to be installed:

libstdc++2.8

- Documentation of this issue is not finished yet -

Database

- "alias" table:

Overview

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ Field │ Type │ Null │ Key │ Default │ Extra │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ id │ int(11) │ │ PRI │ │ auto_increment │

│ alias │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

│ destination │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Comment

This table is only used on local delivery. So it wont work, if you deliver "virtual". Just have that in mind, when you configure your aliases. Also this is the only table, where can execute scripts directly.

Description id This is not necessary, but I also use the id field as an unique identifier in some other places, so it's up to you, if you want to use it.

alias The alias, you wish to redirect, could be postmaster, root or other aliases.

destination This field can hold several types of destinations. I can be one or more addresses (delimited by comma), a file for delivery to file, a "pipe" to a command for executing a script handling STDIN or an include, which has several addresses, one on each line.

Manual: aliases(5)

- "relocated" table:

Overview

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ Field │ Type │ Null │ Key │ Default │ Extra │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ id │ int(11) │ │ PRI │ │ auto_increment │

│ email │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

│ destination │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Comment

This table is only used to tell senders, that the user, they tried to contact doesn't exist on the server anymore, but has moved to a new address. All this does is generating a mailer-daemon message, telling the sender the new address, where this recipient moved to.

Description id This is not necessary, but I also use the id field as an unique identifier in some other places, so it's up to you, if you want to use it.

email The originally email-address.

destination The email-address, where the user can be found now. Eventually you just put "unknown" here, if you don't want to refer to a new address or you don't know the users new address.

Manual: relocated(5)

- "transport" table:

Overview

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ Field │ Type │ Null │ Key │ Default │ Extra │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ id │ int(11) │ │ PRI │ │ auto_increment │

│ domain │ varchar(128) │ │ UNI │ │ │

│ destination │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Description id This is not necessary, but I also use the id field as an unique identifier in some other places, so it's up to you, if you want to use it.

domain The domain field contains the domainnames, of the domains you host.

destination This field is describing the way, postfix should deliver the mail. "local:" would be for local delivery, "virtual:" for delivery to the virtual accounts, we are going to use. You can use every transport type you want in this place. "maildrop:" for mails, who have to be filtered first (see description of maildrop, later in this document) or "uucp:" for delivery to UUCP. IMPORTANT: The hosts primary hostname has to be "local:" delivery !!

Manual: transport(5)

- "users" table:

Overview

+-------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ Field │ Type │ Null │ Key │ Default │ Extra │

+-------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ id │ int(11) │ │ PRI │ │ auto_increment │

│ email │ varchar(128) │ │ UNI │ │ │

│ clear │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

│ name │ tinytext │ │ │ │ │

│ uid │ int(11) │ │ │ 1001 │ │ < replace with your vmail users uid

│ gid │ int(11) │ │ │ 1001 │ │ < replace with your vmail users gid

│ homedir │ tinytext │ │ │ │ │

│ maildir │ tinytext │ │ │ │ │

│ quota │ tinytext │ │ │ │ │

│ postfix │ enum('y','n') │ │ │ y │ │

+-------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Description id This is not necessary, but I also use the id field as an unique identifier in some other places, so it's up to you, if you want to use it.

email The users eMail-address and username

clear The cleartext password used for smtp-auth, pop3 and imap

name The users name. This is only for informational purpose and totally optionally. Courier can use it, but wont need it necessarily.

uid The uid (User ID) of the vmail-user, that we are going to create. This is the only unix-user, that is needed for virtual-delivery, since there still must be some kind of ownership on the stored mails.

You can also create your local unix-users in this table, if you want to give them the possibility to use CRAM-MD5 challenging and maybe give them another password, than the one used for local access. The fun thing about Courier is, that it will check both this and the local password, so that the unix-user will be able to authentificate with both passwords, however CRAM-MD5 challenging can not be used on allready encryptet passwords.

gid The gid (Group ID) of the vmail-user.

homedir This is the path, where the path where the homedir of the user resides. It's "/home/vmail" for our virtual users and should be the same allways for the virtual user, because it'll be hardcoded in postfix configuration. This field is only used by Courier. For any local unix-user this is his/her homepath.

maildir This is the path, where the mails reside inside the homedir. Postfix-style is, that the mails reside in "/Maildir" on local unix-users. For our vmail-user this is a bit different, because all mails for all users reside in the same homedir. Personally i use the format "/domain.tld/user/", some other prefer "/domain.tld/user/Maildir/". This is totally up to you, to choose, what fits your needs best. There is one caveeat here: Remember the trailing slash or else postfix will deliver your mail to a mailspool instead of a maildir.

quota - still not documented -

- "virtual" table:

Overview

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ Field │ Type │ Null │ Key │ Default │ Extra │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

│ id │ int(11) │ │ PRI │ │ auto_increment │

│ email │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

│ destination │ varchar(128) │ │ │ │ │

+-------------+--------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

Comment - IMPORTANT !!

There are some caveeats in this table and the way, i've chosen to setup my postfix. If you want to use maildrop-address (addresses, that collect all mails not going to other recipients), you'll have to make an alias for every account created in the users-table. If an user isn't found in the virtual table, but a maildrop-address is found, mails will be delivered to the maildrop-address instead. By creating a row containing the user (some@domain.tld) in the email- and destination-fields, this doesn't happen. Postfix then also checks the users table and delivers the mail correctly.

Description id This is not necessary, but I also use the id field as an unique identifier in some other places, so it's up to you, if you want to use it.

email The email-address field. Here you can specify aliases of addresses in the format user@domain.tld, create a maildrop-address, create domain-canonicals or distributers.

The formats are accepted:

"domain.tld" - destination just has to contain anything. This is used for domains that are hosted without actually having an account. If you have an entry in the transport-table allready, you should not create this type, but in every other case it's needed to tell postfix, that this domain is hosted. This type has top priority for postfix. It'll allways be the first thing for a domain, that postfix looks for.

"user@domain.tld" - an email-alias or entry as mentioned in the comment. It's also the second priority.

"@domain.tld" - a maildrop-address. This takes all mail not yet delivered and sends it all to one recipient. Read the comment earlier in this document carefully, if you plan to use this. This thing has third priority.

The priorities are a nice thing about postfix, meaning, that you don't have to care about the order you insert your aliases in the database. Postfix handles this totally by itself and doesn't care about where in the database you aliases are and what order they are in.

One additional nice feature is having "@domain.tld" in email and "@other-domain.tld" in destination. This is normally used in the canonical table, but can also be put here, which is the reason, why i left the canonical table out. So if you want to have the same accounts on two domains you can do it this way.

destination The destination address for the alias. This could be a virtual user (user@domain.tld), a local unix-users or a remote email-address. You can also specify more than one recipient delimited by comma.

Manual: virtual(5)

Configuration

linux Users/Files

Create a unix-user named vmail or whatever you want and change the configuration accordingly to that. Maildirs are created automatically by Postfix, when the first mail to an account arrive (if you've set the correct rights to the vmail-homedir). If you however use maildrop, then you'll be forced to create the maildirs manually with the maildirmake command, since maildrop and all other Courier utilities don't create maildirs automatically.

For Virus-scan add also a user named vscan, which is the user Amavis will be running under.

Postfix

Locate the postfix configuration files. These should reside in /etc/postfix on most Linux distributions (OpenBSD uses this also) or on FreeBSD you probably can locate them in /usr/local/etc/postfix

# master.cf

We'll have to create a new delivery, called virtual. The following line should do it:

virtual unix - n n - - virtual

If you're going to install maildrop filtering, add this line:

maildrop unix - n n - - pipe

flags=R user=vmail argv=/usr/bin/maildrop -d ${recipient}

And finally the virus scanning support based on amavis needs you to change a bit more.

Find the following line:

smtp inet n - n - - smtpd

and change it to:

smtp inet n - n - - smtpd

-o content_filter=vscan:

After that add the following lines:

vscan unix - n n - 10 pipe

user=vscan argv=/usr/sbin/amavis ${sender} ${recipient}

localhost:10025 inet n - n - - smtpd

# main.cf

Here we got several changes to do. Please add the following lines (evt. changing the paths to suit your needs):

home_mailbox = Maildir/

- this tells postfix to deliver Maildir-style.

mydestination = $myhostname, $transport_maps

- this tells postfix, to accept mails to $myhostname (should be the hostname of your host) and mails send to any domain in the transport-table. Of course postfix also will look in the virtual-table, if that exists. Eventually you should specify $mydomain here also, but i do it in the transport-table instead. Remember, that default delivery is local, unless anything else is specified in the transport table.

alias_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-aliases.cf

relocated_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-relocated.cf

transport_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-transport.cf

virtual_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual.cf

- here we tell postfix, where to find the tables needed for this. Every of the files mentioned has information about, how to get the needed data out of the sql database.

local_recipient_maps = $alias_maps $virtual_mailbox_maps unix:passwd.byname

- these are the methods, how postfix will deliver to local recipients

virtual_mailbox_base = /home/vmail

virtual_mailbox_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-maps.cf

virtual_uid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-uid.cf

virtual_gid_maps = mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual-gid.cf

- and finally the information about the virtual users. As you can see, the homedir is hardcoded here, where it is stored in the database for use by Courier.

broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes

smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes

smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous

- these are for activation of sasl (smtp-auth)

maps_rbl_domains = rbl.maps.vix.com,

relays.mail-abuse.org,

relays.ordb.org,

dev.null.dk,

spews.relays.osirusoft.com,

spamhaus.relays.osirusoft.com,

relays.visi.com

- if you want to check for spammers, this is an ok choice of rbl-lists to check. However it's you choice, what to use and what not

smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks,

permit_sasl_authenticated,

reject_maps_rbl,

check_relay_domains,

permit

- the permit_mynetworks allows your networks access no matter what, perm_sasl_authenticated is for smtp authentification, reject_maps_rbl rejects all mail from known spamsites and open relays defined by the maps_rbl_domains and the last permit allows everyone else to deliver to your site if the domain is located at your site.

Next the defintion of the mysql-queries. Note, that multiple sql-servers can be defined. This gives you the possibility for clustering. Also be careful: "127.0.0.1" is used intentionally instead of "localhost". Postfix tries to connect via socket, if you use "localhost" and that does somehow not work. By using "127.0.0.1" postfix get forced to connect by network via localhost.

Remember also to disable the "skip-networking" option in your MySQL configuration (on Debian /etc/mysql/my.cnf). It could give you trouble, if that is enabled.

# mysql-aliases.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = alias

select_field = destination

where_field = alias

hosts = 127.0.0.1

# mysql-relocated.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = relocated

select_field = destination

where_field = email

hosts = 127.0.0.1

# mysql-transport.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = transport

select_field = destination

where_field = domain

hosts = 127.0.0.1

# mysql-virtual.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = virtual

select_field = destination

where_field = email

hosts = 127.0.0.1

Now the definitions for the virtual users, providing postfix with maildir-directory, uid and gid to deliver to.

# mysql-virtual-maps.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = users

select_field = maildir

where_field = email

additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'

hosts = 127.0.0.1

# mysql-virtual-uid.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = users

select_field = uid

where_field = email

additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'

hosts = 127.0.0.1

mysql-virtual-gid.cf

user = mysql-postfix-user

password = mysql-postfix-pass

dbname = postfix

table = users

select_field = gid

where_field = email

additional_conditions = and postfix = 'y'

hosts = 127.0.0.1

Courier

Couriers configuration resides under /etc/courier on Debian. We'll have to edit a few of the configuration files here. I'll only mention lines to be changed. Everything else should stay in default or be changed to suit your needs # imapd

AUTHMODULES="authdaemon"

- we want all authentification handled by the authdaemon

IMAP_CAPABILITY="IMAP4rev1 CHILDREN NAMESPACE THREAD=ORDEREDSUBJECT THREAD=REFERENCES SORT AUTH=CRAM-MD5 AUTH=CRAM-SHA1 IDLE"

- this tells the IMAP daemon about the stuff it can handle. Change it to suit your needs, however note the AUTH= parameters, which enable CRAM-MD5 and CRAM-SHA1 authentification.

IMAPDSTART=YES

- this has to be yes, if you want the IMAP daemon to start.

# pop3d

AUTHMODULES="authdaemon"

- also here we want the authdaemon to handle the authentification.

POP3AUTH="LOGIN CRAM-MD5 CRAM-SHA1"

- and also here we want to provide CRAM-MD5 and CRAM-SHA1 challenging methods.

POP3DSTART=YES

- this has to be yes, if you want the POP3 daemon to start.

# authdaemonrc

authmodulelist="authmysql authpam"

- we specify authmysql for mysql authenfication and if you want to authentificate local users also, you can, like here, specify authpam or authshadow also. All types will be checked in that order you provide them.

# authmysqlrc

MYSQL_SERVER localhost

MYSQL_USERNAME mysql-postfix-user

MYSQL_PASSWORD mysql-postfix-pass

MYSQL_PORT 0

MYSQL_OPT 0

MYSQL_DATABASE postfix

MYSQL_USER_TABLE users

MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email

MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD clear

MYSQL_UID_FIELD uid

MYSQL_GID_FIELD gid

MYSQL_HOME_FIELD homedir

MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD maildir

- here we specify the access to the database for both pop3 and imap, actually even sqWebMail, if you want to use that. sqWebMail is a Webmail-Solution, which also is in the Courier Project. It works quite well and is pretty fast, since it accesses the maildirs directly and is written in C. It uses the same authdaemon and can easily be customized, since it uses templates.

Here are some other options, which might be of your interest:

MYSQL_SOCKET /var/mysql/mysql.sock

- this gives you the possibility to use a local socket instead of an ip connnection.

MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD crypt

- if you rather want to store your passwords encryptet, use this. Remember to change the database and be aware of that you cannot use CRAM-MD5 encryption with allready encrypted passwords. Also keep in mind, that you have to use the crypt() function and not the password() function in mysql to encrypt passwords.

MYSQL_NAME_FIELD name

- as mentioned before this is only of informational purpose and optional. Use it, if you want.

MYSQL_QUOTA_FIELD quota

- -- needs documentation --

SASL library

yep .... you saw right, this baby also needs a bit configuration :)

The configuration file needed is /usr/local/lib/sasl/smtpd.conf or on Debian /usr/lib/sasl/smtpd.conf and contains the following:

pwcheck_method: PAM

That should cover it.

PAM-MySQL

Most Linux Distributions have this file at /etc/pam.d/smtp, however you can also use other services with pam-mysql authentification. This is only the example, how to do it for postfix with smtp-auth.

# smtp

auth optional pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=postfix user=mysql-postfix-user

passwd=mysql-postfix-pass table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=n

account required pam_mysql.so server=localhost db=postfix user=mysql-postfix-user

passwd=mysql-postfix-pass table=users usercolumn=email passwdcolumn=clear crypt=n

As you can see, also here you'll be able to change to having the passwords encryptet. I haven't tried it, but since smtp-auth also sends encryptet passwords, i'm not sure, it'll work with encryptet passwords in this case.

扩展阅读,根据您访问的内容系统为您准备了以下内容,希望对您有帮助。

用户在使用电子邮件之前要向ISP申请一个——。

要使用电邮要有一个电子邮箱,先注册一个:126、163、新浪……现在你只要有QQ号,就有一个邮箱:QQ号+@+qq+点+com(不这样会被百度屏蔽,希望你能看懂。)追问这是试题,请用专业点的回答好吗?而且你说的也不对啊追答实在对不起,鄙人文化程度有限,没能正确理解你的意图!

这道题的答案应该是:“E-mail账户”。本回答被网友采纳

电子邮件的英文名称是什么?

答:电子邮件英文名称:E-mail。

1.电子邮件系统是一种新型的信息系统,是通信技术和计算机技术结合的产物。电子邮件的传输是通过电子邮件简单传输协议,这一系统软件来完成的,它是Internet下的一种电子邮件通信协议。

2.电子邮件的基本原理,是在通信网上设立“电子信箱系统”,它实际上是一个计算机系统。系统的硬件是一个高性能、大容量的计算机。存储空间包含存放所收信件、编辑信件以及信件存档三部分空间,用户使用口令开启自己的信箱,并进行发信、读信、编辑、转发、存档等各种操作。系统功能主要由软件实现。

3.电子邮件的通信是在信箱之间进行的。每份电子邮件的发送都要涉及到发送方与接收方,发送方式构成客户端,而接收方构成服务器,服务器含有众多用户的电子信箱。发送方通过邮件客户程序,将编辑好的电子邮件向邮局服务器发送。邮局服务器识别接收者的地址,并向管理该地址的邮件服务器发送消息。  

4.通常Internet上的个人用户不能直接接收电子邮件,而是通过申请ISP主机的一个电子信箱,由ISP主机负责电子邮件的接收。一旦有用户的电子邮件到来,ISP主机就将邮件移到用户的电子信箱内,并通知用户有新邮件。因此,当发送一条电子邮件给一另一个客户时,电子邮件首先从用户计算机发送到ISP主机,再到Internet,再到收件人的ISP主机,最后到收件人的个人计算机。     

5.每个用户的电子信箱实际上就是用户所申请的帐号名。每个用户的电子邮件信箱都要占用ISP主机一定容量的硬盘空间,由于这一空间是有限的,因此用户要定期查收和阅读电子信箱中的邮件,以便腾出空间来接收新的邮件。

收不到国外邮件

这是一个令众多企业非常头痛的事情,下面是我们一些经验总结,希望对大家有所帮助,也请大家提出更多好的建议。

原因分析:由于中国以前没有有效的垃圾邮件管理办法,造成国外很多ISP采取最野蛮的方式 直接封锁中国IP段,不过现在中国电信对这方面的力度很大,管理还不错,但一些小的ISP 或者偏远地方ISP还需努力。

为了简单、快速找到原因和解决方案,列举几个常见的症状,大家可以对症下药。

A,国内邮件可以正常收发,为什么发到国外对方就收不到呢?且没有错误返回,为什么呢?

原因:邮件接收方ISP直接将您邮件服务器IP列入黑名单了,或者是这个ip段其他服务器发送了垃圾邮件未处理。

解决:先自查,没有问题,再给该ISP写邮件或者传真 说明你邮件服务器是正常邮件系统 无发垃圾邮件现象,正规的ISP大概 48小时内给予回复,或者更换到未被列入黑名单的邮件服务器。

B,给国外发送邮件,就收到错误信息,信中说明已被列入黑名单,还有具体的网址。

原因:因同一个IP段某个IP发垃圾邮件,而被列入反垃圾邮件组织黑名单中,也有可能是某台服务器中了木马被黑客利用来发垃圾邮件,或者没有禁止PROXY,被用来发垃圾邮件

解决:先进行自我检查,看看是否有客户发送垃圾邮件情况?如果有,就一定要停止,如果没有,就按他们要求提交资料,一般48小时会解封。

C, 发给国外客户的邮件直接到垃圾邮件列表,或者直接收不到

原因:邮局系统没有做反向解析。

解决:请邮局系统提供商做反向解析,如果是您自己建的邮局系统,请找ISP将您邮局域名反向解析到邮局系统IP,24小时内可以生效。

D,直接返回发送错误信息,提示找不到对方主机

原因:本地解析错误,对方邮件解析错误或者域名过期等等

解决:请技术人员检查对方域名,或者自己邮局解析服务器设置是否正确?

网络连接的ISP是什么意思

ISP(Internet Service Provider),互联网服务提供商,即向广大用户综合提供互联网接入业务、信息业务、和增值业务的电信运营商。

在互联网应用服务产业链“设备供应商——基础网络运营商——内容收集者和生产者——业务提供者——用户”中,ISP/ICP处于内容收集者、生产者以及业务提供者的位置。

由于接驳国际互联网需要租用国际信道,其成本对于一般用户是无法承担的。

Internet接入提供商作为提供接驳服务的中介,需投*量资金建立中转站,租用国际信道和大量的当地电话线,购置一系列计算机设备,通过集中使用,分散压力的方式,向本地用户提供接驳服务。

较大的ISPs拥有他们自己的高速租用线路以至于他们很少依赖电信供应商,并且能够为他们的客户提供更好的服务。最大的国际和地域性因特网服务提供商有:AT&T WorldNet,IBM全球网,MCI,Netcom,UUNet,和PSINet。

扩展资料

目前按照主营的业务划分,中国ISP主要有以下:

1、移动互联网业务ISP

移动互联网业务ICP主要提供移动互联网服务,包括:WAP上网服务、移动即时通信服务、信息下载服务等。

2、门户ISP提供新闻信息、文化信息等信息服务。

门户ISP以向公众提供各种信息为主业,具有稳定的用户群。门户ISP的收入来源比较广,包括在线广告、移动业务、网络游戏及其他业务。比如:新浪、搜狐、网易和雅虎等门户网站(包括行业门户)。

3、在邮件营销领域,ISP主要指电子邮箱服务商

RFC 6650给电子邮箱服务商的定义是:为终端用户提供邮件发送、接收、存储服务的公司或组织。这个定义涵盖了电子邮件托管服务、以及自主管理邮件服务器的公司、大学、机构和个人。

参考资料来源:百度百科-ISP

如何避免邮件被当成垃圾邮件

答:让我们先来了解一下邮件收发机制,如下图所示:

ISP接收一封邮件时,它有几个步骤:

1.判断连接,假如发件人IP域名在黑名单内,就拒绝。

2.判断账户,当收件人地址不存在,或者邮箱已满,就拒绝。

3.过滤器,不同的ISP会根据相关规则来拦截垃圾邮件。

4.综合判断,决定邮件去向,是垃圾箱、收件箱还是ISP黑洞。

所以总结起来,U-Mail认为决定邮件命运的要素主要是四个:

1.技术设置

2.认证设置

3.邮件内容

4.信誉度

问:那么这四个要素该如何设置才符合ISP的兴趣呢?

答:

一、在“技术设置”环节,我们是做好以下几点:

A、使用固定的IP地址,因为动态IP是垃圾邮件发送的常见特征容易被屏蔽;

B、使用二级域名,既保护了公司的主域名,又避免了动态IP发送;

C、遵守RFC2821、RFC2822等SMTP基本协议;

D、做好反向域名解析,每个IP都需要做专业的反向解析 。

U-Mail邮件营销平台拥有海量的IP资源,轮循群发。而且U-Mail洁身自好,规定对于违法违规内容、对于平台不利的内容都不允许发,防止被*规模举报,有利的保障用户需要。

二、在认证设置这个环节要求我们做好SPF记录和DKIM记录。

SPF记录有利于ISP追溯到源头,把一些隐蔽伪装仿真度高的“山寨者”彻底杜绝;DKIM记录则包含域名、发件人、主题等信息形成的加密签名,可以有效防止邮件被窃密被篡改,这样大大降低了邮件被判为垃圾的概率。

三、在邮件内容撰写上,我们需掌握几个要点:

A、使用HTML格式时必须遵循W3C标准,不要使用多余标签。

B、文字格式简单,颜色少,英文不要全部用大写字母,文案少而精,图片起点缀作用,链接确保能打开且简短,标点符号不要用惊叹号。

C、不要使用一些敏感词汇,包括*性词汇、违法违规的词汇、广告语言等。

四、关于美誉度

一般来说,每次连接发送太多邮件、连接对方服务器太频繁、每个IP建立太多连接、连接时超时次数太对、发送频率过高等都会导致被投诉和无效地址数增多,也无形中会影响到ISP对发件人IP和域名信誉的判断;另外要注意及时筛选排除出无效地址,尤其是一些商务邮件地址,往往随着收件人的工作变换等原因而更换,每年的更换率高达30%以上。作为一家运营十几年成功服务上万客户的专业服务商,U-Mail已经积累了非常多的美誉度高的IP,足以满足用户需求。

问:为了提高美誉度和规避“被垃圾”的嫌疑,一个措施是尽量使邮件做到个性化,这同样是营销进入个性化时代的要求,那么可有什么针对性方法? 

答:要做到邮件个性化避免千篇一律的雷同,拿我们U-Mail邮件营销平台来说,它可以:

1.插入自定义变量、自带的公共变量,

比如我们可以将收件人的姓名及对应的关联数据设置为变量,这样做同样会令收件人倍感尊崇,赢得好感,提高阅读率。 同时每封邮件越不一样,ISP就不容易判断出用户是在群发邮件,降低进垃圾箱的可能性。

2.在建立一个群发任务中,可以使用多个邮件模板,编辑多个邮件主题,如下图所示:

这就好比大自然中百花齐放争奇斗艳,各有各的精彩之处,大大降低了邮件相似度,使ISP不会轻易判断出邮件是群发,也降低了进入收件人垃圾箱的概率。

3.做好测试工作,提前预判,未雨绸缪。U-Mail独创一项专利技术,它可以在群发邮件之前就先评估这个效果,这样免得你枉费心血。如下图所示:

按照邮件有可能进入垃圾箱的概率,从小到大排列,用不同颜色标准,提示我们尽快修改概率大的模板。

总之,对收件人来说,感兴趣的、相关的、有价值的、急需的邮件,TA才会把发件人设置为白名单。希望每一个邮件营销人员都尽力提升邮件质量,采用专业优质平台

本回答被提问者采纳

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