霉霉《Folklore》专辑已创下Apple Music 24小时发行量新纪录

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主谓2113一致即谓语动词在人称和数上5261要和主语保持一致4102,主谓一致包括语法一致、意义一致和就近一致,语法1653一致即谓语动词在单复数形式上要和主语保持一致,意义一致就是谓语动词要和主语意义上的单复数保持一致,就近一致就是谓语动词要和靠近它的主语部分保持一致。主谓一致( Subject-Verb Concord )就其在现代语法中的基本原则而言,通常有三个不同角度的着眼点:1,语法一致 2,意义一致 3,就近原则。(1)语法一致主谓一致的原则是指,主语和谓语从语法形式上取得一致:主语是单数形式,谓语也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语必须采取复数形式。例如:A grammar book helps you learn something about the rules of a language.语法书帮助你学习语言的某些规则。(主语是单数形式,谓语也采取单数形式)(2)不定式,动名词,以及从句作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:Reading often means learning .读书常意味是学习。(3)不定代词及each作主语或是修饰主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:Neither of my sisters likes sports .我的妹妹中没人喜欢运动。(4)表示国家,机构,事件,作品等名称的专有名词作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:One Thousand And One Nights tells people lots of mysterious bits of folklore .《一千零一夜》给人们讲了许多神秘的民间传说。(5)a series of,a kind of,the number of等与名词构成名词短语作主语时看作单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:A series of high technology products has been laid out in the exhibition. 一系列高科技产品已在展览上展出。(6)由some,several,both,few,many,a number of 等词修饰主语,或是由它们自身作主语时应看作复数,谓语动词用复数。例如:Both of us are fond of watching football games .我们俩都喜欢看足球赛.(7)由and连接两个主语时,如指同一人或物,谓语用单数;指不同的人或物,谓语用复数.On the seashore,some people are playing volleyball and some are lying in the sun. 海边,有些人在打排球,有些人躺着晒太阳.(8)有些短语,如:a lot of,most of,any of,half of,three fifths of,eighty percent of,some of,none of,the rest of,all of等后接不可数名词,或是单数形式的名词作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数;但如果后接可数名词的复数形式作主语时应看作复数,谓语动词用复数。例如:A lot of money in the shop was stolen yesterday when the electricity was suddenly cut off. 昨天突然断电时,那家商店丢失了许多钱.(9)主语为单数个不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句时,谓语动词一般用单数。(10)主语为三单,或习惯用作单数名词或不可数名词的词,如:money,information,clothing等,谓语动词用单数。意义一致(Notional Concord )这一原则是指,从意义着眼来解决主谓一致问题.有时主语形式上为单数,但意义上却是复数,那么谓语依意义也用复数形式;而有时主语形式上为复数,但意义上却是单数,那么谓语依意义亦用单数形式。(1)当主语后面接由as well as,as much as,accompanied by,including,in addition to,more than,no less than,rather than,together with等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的形式要依主语的单复数而定。在这样的句子里,这些词所引导的词组不影响主语自身的单,复数形式,它们在句子里其实是状语.也就是说,我们完全可以将这些词组搬到句首或是放到句末去.从表面上我们也可以看出,它们与主语之间有","隔开。例如:Petroleum,along with fuel gas,has recently risen in price.目前石油和燃料煤气的价格上涨了。(2)表示时间,金钱,距离,体积,重量,面积,数字等词语作主语时,其意义若是指总量应看作单数,谓语动词用单数;但如果其意义是指"有多少数量"则应该看作是复数,那么谓语动词也应该用复数。例如:Four weeks are often approximately regarded as one month.人们常大约地将四个星期看成一个月。(3)形容词前加定冠词即"the + 形容词"作主语时,其意义若是指个人或是抽象概念应看作单数,谓语动词用单数;但如果其意义是指一类人则应该看作是复数,那么谓语动词也应该用复数。例如:The young,on the one hand,often think of the old conservative. On the other hand,the old always consider the young inexperience.一方面,青年人常认为老年人保守;另一方面,老年人总是认为青年人没有经验。(4)当and连接两个并列主语在意义上指同一人,同一物,同一事或者同一概念时,应看作单数,谓语动词用单数.另外,当and 连接两个形容词去修饰一个单数形式的主语时,其实是指两种不同的事物,主语则应该看作是复数,那么谓语动词也应该用复数。例如:War and peace is a constant theme in history. 战争与和平是一个历史上的永恒的主题.(5)集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语的意义:主语表示整体时视为单数,谓语动词用单数;主语表示集体中的个体成员时视为复数,谓语动词用复数.这类集体名词常见的有:army,audience,cattle,class,club,committee,crowd,family,government,group,majority,minority,part,people,police,public,staff,team等等,其中cattle,people,police一般看成复数形式.例如:The family are all fond of football. 那一家人都喜欢足球.就近原则(Principle of Proximity )这一原则是指,谓语动词的人称和数常常与最近作主语的词语保持一致.常出现在这类句子中的连词有:or,either… or …,neither… nor …,not only… but also …等.例如:Either I or they are responsible for the result of the matter.不是我,就是他们要对那件事的结局负责任。Neither the unkind words nor the unfriendly attitude has caused me any distress.既不是那些不友好的话,也不是那不友好的态度让我沮丧。扩展资料1、并列结构作主语时的主谓一致由and 连接的两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般根据语法一致的原则用复数。如:A young man and a girl want to go there.一个青年男子和一个姑娘想去那里。2、但如果在意义上指同一个人,同一件事或同一个概念时,谓语动词要用单数形式.如:A needle and thread was found on the floor.在地板上找到了针线(穿了线的针)。当each ...and each...,every...and every...,no...and no...,many a...and many a...结构作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式.如:No man and no animal is to be found on the moon.在月球上没发现人和动物。3、一个单数名词同时被两个不同的形容词修饰,表示两个不同的概念时,谓语动词一般用复数.如:Ancient and modern history are the subjects we are studying.古代史和现代史是我们目前学习的课程。但如果表示的是同一概念时应用单数。如:The last and most difficult lesson is lesson14.14课是最后一课也是最难的一课。4、由not only... but also ...,either...or ...,neither... nor...,... or...连接的并列主语,谓语动词通常依就近一致原则决定.如:Either the players or the coach is responsible for the defeat.不是运动员就是教练应该对这次比赛的失利负责。5、当主语由as well as,along with,together with,ratherthan,no less than,but,except,besides,in additionto,like,including等词连接时,其谓语动词的单复数形式通常由前面的词来决定。如:An iron and steal works,with some satellite factories. is to be built here.在这里将建立一个钢铁厂和一些卫星厂。参考资料来源:百度百科-主谓一致,知识点总2113结  在英语中,句子中的谓语动词在人称5261和单、复数形式上必4102须和主语保持一致,这就是我1653们通常说的“主谓一致”。这一点看似简单,但在实际运用中却常常遇到麻烦。一般情况下,主谓之间的一致关系由以下三个原则的支配: 语法一致原则、 意义一致原则和就近原则。   一、语法一致   主谓一致的原则是指主语和谓语从语法形式上取得一致:主语是单数形式,谓语也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语亦采取复数形式。例如:   He often helps me learn English.  (主语是单数形式,谓语也采取单数形式)  。   My friends often help me learn English.  (主语是复数形式,谓语也采取复数形式)   但主语和谓语从语法形式上取得一致的问题远不只上述的那么简单,有许多方面的情况需要去具体地对待:   1、不定式,动名词,以及从句作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。   例如:Reading aloud is helpful to learn English.大声朗读对学习英语是有帮助的。   What he said has been recorded .他说的话已被录音了。   2、不定代词one, every, each, everybody, everyone, one of, no one, nothing, nobody, someone, somebody, either, neither, many a 等作主语或是修饰主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。但none 作主语时,谓语动词既可用单数也可用复数,这要取决于说话人的看法。   例如:Neither of my sisters likes sports .我的妹妹中没人喜欢运动。   Every boy and girl shows great interest in this book .每个男孩和女孩对这本书都表现出很大的兴趣。   3、表示国家,机构,事件,作品等名称的专有名词作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。   例如:One Thousand And One Nights tells people lots of interesting stories .   《一千零一夜》给人们讲了许多有趣的故事。   4、a kind of, the number of等与名词构成名词短语作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数。   例如:The number of workers in the factory is 400. 这个工厂里工人的数量是400.   A kind of rose in the garden smells very pleasant.这座花园里有一种玫瑰香气怡人。   5、由some, several, both, few, many, a number of 等词修饰主语,或是由它们自身作主语时应看作复数,谓语动词用复数。另外,由and连接两个主语时,谓语一般用复数。   例如:On the seashore, some people are playing volleyball 海边,有些人在打排球。   Both of us are fond of watching football games .我们俩都喜欢看足球赛。   A number of will-be graduates are voluntarily going to work in the West of China. 许多即将毕业的学生打算自愿去中国西部工作。   6、有些表示数量的百分数,分数等后面加名词或代词作主语时,要根据这个名词或代词来决定其谓语动词的单复数形式。如:a lot of, most of, any of, half of, three fifths of, eighty percent of, some of, none of, the rest of , all of等后接不可数名词,或是单数形式的名词作主语时应看作单数,谓语动词用单数;但如果后接可数名词的复数形式作主语时应看作复数,谓语动词用复数。   例如:A lot of money in the shop was stolen yesterday. 昨天那家商店丢失了许多钱。   A lot of students are from England in the school.那个学校里很多学生来自英国。   二、意义一致   这一原则是指,从意义着眼来解决主谓一致问题。有时主语形式上为单数,但意义上却是复数,那么谓语依意义也用复数形式;而有时主语形式上为复数,但意义上却是单数,那么谓语依意义亦用单数形式。   1)当主语后面接由but, except, besides, as well as, as much as, including, more than, no less than, rather than, together with等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单复数形式通常由前面的词来决定。在这样的句子里,这些词所引导的词组不影响主语自身的单,复数形式,它们在句子里其实是状语。   例如:The teacher, with all his students, is going to have a picnic this weekend.老师打算这个周末与学生们一起去野炊。   The students, together with their teacher, are going to have a picnic this weekend.学生们打算这个周末与他们的老师一起去野炊。   我们完全可以将上面句子中的那些词组都分别搬到句首或是放到句末去,因为它们在句子里是状语:The students are going to have a picnic this weekend together with their teacher.   2)表示时间,金钱,距离,体积,重量,面积,数字等词语作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。如:   Eight hours of sleep is enough. 八小时的睡眠足够了。   Twenty years stands for a long period in one's life. 二十年在人的一生里意味着一个很长的时期。   3)形容词前加定冠词即“the + 形容词”作主语时,其意义若是指个人或是抽象概念应看作单数,谓语动词用单数;指一类人则应该看作是复数,那么谓语动词也应该用复数。   例如:The sick here are very well cared for. 这里的病人都被照顾得很好。   The true is to be distinguished from the false. 真实与虚假应加以区别。   4)由and 连接的两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般根据语法一致的原则用复数。   但如果在意义上指同一个人、同一件事或同一个概念时,谓语动词要用单数形式。   如:The writer and teacher is coming. 那位作家兼教师来了。(作家和教师指同一个人)   The writer and the teacher are coming. 作家和老师来了。(作家和老师是两个人)   5)集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语的意义:主语表示整体时视为单数,谓语动词用单数;主语表示集体中的个体成员时视为复数,谓语动词用复数。这类集体名词常见的有:army, class, club, crowd, family, government, group, people, police, public, team等。   例如:The family are all fond of football. 那一家人都喜欢足球。   The family is the tiniest cell of the society. 家庭是社会的最小的细胞。   6)一些形式为复数,意思为单数的名词,如:trousers, pants, shorts, glasses, 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。   如:Her glasses are new. 她的眼镜是新的。   但当这类名词前有a pair of 修饰时,谓语动词应用单数。   如:This pair of trousers is made in Hangzhou.   三、就近原则   这一原则是指,谓语动词的人称和数常常与最近作主语的词语保持一致。常出现在这类句子中的连词有:or, either… or …, neither… nor … , not only… but also …等。   例如: Either I or they are responsible for the result of the matter. 不是我,就是他们要对那件事的结局负责任。   Neither his family nor he knows anything about it. 他全家人和他都不知道那件事。   常见考法   对于主谓一致的考查,通常会以单选的形式出现,多是让我们选择合适的谓语动词。   典型例题:The factory, including its machines and buildings, __________ burnt last night.   A. is B. are C. were D. was   解析:but, except, besides, with, together with, along with, including, as well as, rather than, like等词连接主语时,谓语动词和前面的主语保持一致,本题中就是和The factory保持一致。而这些词所引导的词组不影响主语自身的单,复数形式,它们在句子里其实是状语。   答案:D   误区提醒   主谓一致这一知识点比较琐碎,在运用中常会因为考虑不全面而出错,所以我们必须把每一种用法记住,灵活运用。尤其要注意就近原则、集体名词和百分数,分数短语作主语的情况。   典型例题:Either Jane or Steven _____ watching TV now.   A. were B. is C. was D. are   解析:本题考查的是就近原则。either… or …, neither… nor … , not only… but also …连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数常常与最近作主语的词语保持一致。本题中就是和Steven保持一致。有now.可知是现在进行时,排除A和C.   答案:Bhttp://www.g12e.com/new/201210/zh2012102309531618460612.shtmlhttp://wenku.baidu.com/view/70cb1a6d1eb91a37f1115c8f.html希望对你有帮助,满意请采纳本回答被网友采纳,主谓2113一致的基本原则主谓一致有5261以下三条原则:1)语法一4102致1653原则,即在语法形式上取得一致。例如,主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采取单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采取复数形式。例如:The students are very young.This picture looks beautiful.2)意义一致原则,即从意义着眼处理一致关系。例如,主语形式虽是单数但意义是复数,谓语动词也采取复数形式;而有些主语形式虽是复数但意义上看作单数,谓语动词也采取单数形式。1.The people in that country are fighting for independence.2.The crowd deeply respect their leader. 3.Three years in a strange land seems a long time.3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单数或复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。例如:Neither he nor I am going to see the film tonight because we are busy.2.主谓一致的用法根据以上三条原则,主谓一致有如下用法:1)下列结构作主语,谓语动词一般用单数形式a.表示时间、重量、长度、价值的名词作主语,谓语动词通常用单数形式。例如:1.Two hundred miles is a long distance.2.Ten dollars is a high price for that book.b.由anyone,anything,anybody,no one,nothing,everyone,everybody,everything,someone,somebody,each,either,neither等不定代词作主语,谓语动词使用单数形式。例如:1.Someone is knocking at the door.2.Anything is better than going to the movie tonight.c.由“a series of,a kind of,a portion of +名词”作主语,谓语动词应用单数形式。例如:A series of debates is scheduled to be held next week.d.由“many a,more than one +单数名词”作主语,尽管意义上表示复数,但谓语动词仍采用单数形式。例如:Many a person in these circumstances has hoped for a long break.There is more than one answer to your question.e.“名词+and+名词”作主语,表示同一人、同一概念或事物时,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:A writer and educator is giving a lecture now.(这个人既是作家又是教育家)f."either (neither) + of +复数名词(或代词)"作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:1.If either of you takes a vacation now,we will not be able to finish the work.2.Neither of them wants to come.g.在each…and each…,every…and every…等结构之后,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:Each man and each woman has the right to vote.h.动词不定式、动名词或分句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。例如:What I want to say is none of your business.Listening to the classical music is enjoyable.i.以-ics结尾的复数名词指一门学科时,如politics(政治学),mathematics(数学),statistics(统计学),acoustics(声学),linguistics(语言学)等,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:Mathematics is what he majors in.2)下列结构作主语,谓语动词单复数形式取决于of后的名词。a.由“a11,none,no,most,half,the last,the rest,the remainder+of+名词”等不定代词作主语,谓语动词单复数形式由of后名词的单复数而定。例如:None of the food is wasted.None of the students were absent.The rest of the lecture was dull.The rest of the bikes were on sale yesterday.b.由"lots of,heaps of,loads Of,scads of +名词”作主语,谓语动词单复数形式由of后名词的单复数而定。例如:Lots of work is to be done this week.Lots of people are going to swim this afternoon.There is loads of milk on the farm.There are loads of big red apples on the ground.There is heaps of fun.c.由“分数或百分数十of +名词或代词”作主语,谓语动词的单复数形式取决于of后名词或代词的单复数形式。例如:Three-quarters of the area is cultivated.Ninety percent of the students have passed the exam.3)下列结构作主语,谓语动词的单复数形式根据意义而定。a.由“the+形容词” 这种结构作主语,根据意义一致的原则决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果表示一类人 (如the rich,the poor,the blind,the deaf,the sick,the young,the old),谓语动词用复数形式;如果表示个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:The blind are taught trades in special schools. (表示一类人)The good in him overweighs the bad. (表示抽象概念)The departed was a good friend of his. (表示个人)b.family,crowd,committee,class,audience,group,government,team,public,majority,minority等集合名词作主语,谓语动词单复数形式应根据意义而定。例如:The family like to listen to the music.(the family指这家人,用作复数)The family is small.(the family指这个家庭,用作单数)The committee has considered your proposal.(the committee指委员会,用作单数)The committee were arguing for an hour before they gave their votes. (the committee指委员会的委员们,用作复数)下列结构作主语,谓语动词一般单复数均可。a. 以数词为名词词组中心词作主语时,谓语动词一般单复数均可。例如:Five and six make/makes eleven.Seven times ten are seventy.但是:Twenty from thirty leaves ten. Six sevens are forty-two.b.由"one in/out of +名词”作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。例如:One in ten were/was present.下列结构作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。由and或both…and连接两个单数形式的名词词组作主语时,一般谓语动词用复数形式。例如:A girl and a boy want to go.Both rice and wheat are grown in that country.6)下列结构作主语,谓语动词单复数形式视具体情况而定。a.由as well as,together with,besides, like,along with,with but,except,accompanied by,rather than,including连接两个名词作主语,谓语单复数形式应由连接词前的名词而定。例如:The president of the college,together with the deans,is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.The young mother with her two children is coming now.The plant manager,like many technicians,is experienced in designing new products.b.“名词+of+名词”作主语,谓语动词单复数形式跟of前的名词一致。例如:The picture of the children brings back many memories of my past experiences.The effects of cigarette smoking have been proved to be extremely harmful.c.由not only…but also,either…or,neither…nor或or连接的并列主语,通常根据就近一致原则,谓语动词的单复数形式由最接近它的名词词组的单复数形式决定。例如:He or you have taken my pen.Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it.One or two days are enough to visit the city.d.there be句型中的谓语动词单复数形式一般取决于其后的真正主语的单复数形式。例如:There is a garden in front of the house.There are two things I'd like to say here.7)关于几对容易混淆词组的一致用法a.由"this/that kind/type of +名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式;而由"these/those kind/type of +复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:1.This kind of apples is highly priced.2.Those kind(s) of tests are good. b.由“a number of,a total of,an average of +复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数形式;由“the number of,the total of,the average of +复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:A number of students are waiting for the bus.The number of the students in this university is increasing yearly.c.one of,the (only) one of的一致用法This is one of the books that have been recommended.This is the (only) one of the books that has been recommended.3.前后呼应的用法1)当everyone,everybody,no one,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody,everything,anything,something,nothing等用作主语时,其相应的代词一般用单数形式。例如:If anybody calls,tell him that I'm out.Something strange happened,didn't it?Every passenger has to carry his own luggage.2)人称代词与名词的呼应:人称代词I (me),he (him),she (her),it (it)都是代替前面的单数名词,而they (them),we (us)则是代替复数名词的,you既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数。但表示泛指的时候,用he或one来表示。例如:If a young person enters a classical music field only for money,he is in the wrong profession.The leaves of the red maple are highly poisonous to horses and when ingested can kill them within fifteen hours。3)物主代词与名词的呼应:my,our,his,her,its,their要与代替的名词在数上一致。例如:The welfare department,as well as the other social services,will have its budget cut.Delphins are warm-blooded;that is,their body temperature always stays about the same,regardless of the surroundings.4)反身代词与其所代成分间的呼应。Many primitive people believed that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.Everybody clings to this illusion about himself.I have just been out to get myself a cup of tea.5)指示代词与所代名词间的呼应:this和that指代单数名词或不可数名词,these和those指代复数名词 (those还可以用作先行词,引导定语从句,表示“那些人”)。例如:She invited all those who had been her former colleagues.The amount of the pressure caused by the weight of a column of fluid is determined by the height of this column.6) much和much of后接不可数名词,而many和many of后接可数名词的复数。例如:There is not much coal left.A great many of the houses were knocked down by the earthquake.7)表示量的词后面有的接可数名词,有的接不可数名词。接可数名词的有:a number of,a range of,a series of十复数名词;接不可数名词的有:a great deal of,an amount of十不可数名词;既可接可数又可接不可数名词的有:a lot of,a variety of。例如:1.The government attached a great deal of importance to education.2.Quite a number of women applied for this job.3.The college library has a variety of books.4.An apple is a variety of fruit.5.A wide range of disorders can affect the human muscular system.www.zgxue.com防采集请勿采集本网。

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