.net core webapi jwt 更为清爽的认证详解

来源:脚本之家  责任编辑:小易  

我的方式非主流,控制却可以更加灵活,喜欢的朋友,不妨花一点时间学习一下

jwt认证分为两部分,第一部分是加密解密,第二部分是灵活的应用于中间件,我的处理方式是将获取token放到api的一个具体的controller中,将发放token与验证分离,token的失效时间,发证者,使用者等信息存放到config中。

1.配置:

在appsettings.json中增加配置

"Jwt": {
"Issuer": "issuer",//随意定义
"Audience": "Audience",//随意定义
"SecretKey": "abc",//随意定义
"Lifetime": 20, //单位分钟
"ValidateLifetime": true,//验证过期时间
"HeadField": "useless", //头字段
"Prefix": "prefix", //前缀
"IgnoreUrls": [ "/Auth/GetToken" ]//忽略验证的url
}

2:定义配置类:

internal class JwtConfig
  {
    public string Issuer { get; set; }
    public string Audience { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// 加密key
    /// </summary>
    public string SecretKey { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 生命周期
    /// </summary>
    public int Lifetime { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 是否验证生命周期
    /// </summary>
    public bool ValidateLifetime { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 验证头字段
    /// </summary>
    public string HeadField { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// jwt验证前缀
    /// </summary>
    public string Prefix { get; set; }
    /// <summary>
    /// 忽略验证的url
    /// </summary>
    public List<string> IgnoreUrls { get; set; }
  }

3.加密解密接口:

 public interface IJwt
  {
    string GetToken(Dictionary<string, string> Clims);
    bool ValidateToken(string Token,out Dictionary<string ,string> Clims);
  }

4.加密解密的实现类:

install -package System.IdentityModel.Tokens.Jwt

 public class Jwt : IJwt
  {
    private IConfiguration _configuration;
    private string _base64Secret;
    private JwtConfig _jwtConfig = new JwtConfig();
    public Jwt(IConfiguration configration)
    {
      this._configuration = configration;
      configration.GetSection("Jwt").Bind(_jwtConfig);
      GetSecret();
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// 获取到加密串
    /// </summary>
    private void GetSecret()
    {
      var encoding = new System.Text.ASCIIEncoding();
      byte[] keyByte = encoding.GetBytes("salt");
      byte[] messageBytes = encoding.GetBytes(this._jwtConfig.SecretKey);
      using (var hmacsha256 = new HMACSHA256(keyByte))
      {
        byte[] hashmessage = hmacsha256.ComputeHash(messageBytes);
        this._base64Secret= Convert.ToBase64String(hashmessage);
      }
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// 生成Token
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="Claims"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public string GetToken(Dictionary<string, string> Claims)
    {
      List<Claim> claimsAll = new List<Claim>();
      foreach (var item in Claims)
      {
        claimsAll.Add(new Claim(item.Key, item.Value));
      }
      var symmetricKey = Convert.FromBase64String(this._base64Secret);
      var tokenHandler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
      var tokenDescriptor = new SecurityTokenDescriptor
      {
        Issuer = _jwtConfig.Issuer,
        Audience = _jwtConfig.Audience,
        Subject = new ClaimsIdentity(claimsAll),
        NotBefore = DateTime.Now,
        Expires = DateTime.Now.AddMinutes(this._jwtConfig.Lifetime),
        SigningCredentials =new SigningCredentials(new SymmetricSecurityKey(symmetricKey),
                      SecurityAlgorithms.HmacSha256Signature)
      };
      var securityToken = tokenHandler.CreateToken(tokenDescriptor);
      return tokenHandler.WriteToken(securityToken);
    }
    public bool ValidateToken(string Token, out Dictionary<string, string> Clims)
    {
      Clims = new Dictionary<string, string>();
      ClaimsPrincipal principal = null;
      if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(Token))
      {
        return false;
      }
      var handler = new JwtSecurityTokenHandler();
      try
      {
        var jwt = handler.ReadJwtToken(Token);

        if (jwt == null)
        {
          return false;
        }
        var secretBytes = Convert.FromBase64String(this._base64Secret);
        var validationParameters = new TokenValidationParameters
        {
          RequireExpirationTime = true,
          IssuerSigningKey = new SymmetricSecurityKey(secretBytes),
          ClockSkew = TimeSpan.Zero,
          ValidateIssuer = true,//是否验证Issuer
          ValidateAudience = true,//是否验证Audience
          ValidateLifetime = this._jwtConfig.ValidateLifetime,//是否验证失效时间
          ValidateIssuerSigningKey = true,//是否验证SecurityKey
          ValidAudience = this._jwtConfig.Audience,
          ValidIssuer = this._jwtConfig.Issuer
        };
        SecurityToken securityToken;
        principal = handler.ValidateToken(Token, validationParameters, out securityToken);
        foreach (var item in principal.Claims)
        {
          Clims.Add(item.Type, item.Value);
        }
        return true;
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
        return false;
      }
    }
  }

5.定义获取Token的Controller:

在Startup.ConfigureServices中注入 IJwt

services.AddTransient<IJwt, Jwt>(); // Jwt注入

[Route("[controller]/[action]")]
  [ApiController]
  public class AuthController : ControllerBase
  {
    private IJwt _jwt;
    public AuthController(IJwt jwt)
    {
      this._jwt = jwt;
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// getToken
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    [HttpPost]
    public IActionResult GetToken()
    {
      if (true)
      {
        Dictionary<string, string> clims = new Dictionary<string, string>();
        clims.Add("userName", userName);
        return new JsonResult(this._jwt.GetToken(clims));
      }
    }
  }

6.创建中间件:

 public class UseJwtMiddleware
  {
    private readonly RequestDelegate _next;
    private JwtConfig _jwtConfig =new JwtConfig();
    private IJwt _jwt;
    public UseJwtMiddleware(RequestDelegate next, IConfiguration configration,IJwt jwt)
    {
      _next = next;
      this._jwt = jwt;
      configration.GetSection("Jwt").Bind(_jwtConfig);
    }
    public Task InvokeAsync(HttpContext context)
    {
      if (_jwtConfig.IgnoreUrls.Contains(context.Request.Path))
      {
        return this._next(context);
      }
      else
      {
        if (context.Request.Headers.TryGetValue(this._jwtConfig.HeadField, out Microsoft.Extensions.Primitives.StringValues authValue))
        {
          var authstr = authValue.ToString();
          if (this._jwtConfig.Prefix.Length > 0)
          {
            authstr = authValue.ToString().Substring(this._jwtConfig.Prefix.Length+1, authValue.ToString().Length -(this._jwtConfig.Prefix.Length+1));
          }
          if (this._jwt.ValidateToken(authstr, out Dictionary<string, string> Clims))
          {
            foreach (var item in Clims)
            {
              context.Items.Add(item.Key, item.Value);
            }
            return this._next(context);
          }
          else
          {
            context.Response.StatusCode = 401;
            context.Response.ContentType = "application/json";
            return context.Response.WriteAsync("{\"status\":401,\"statusMsg\":\"auth vaild fail\"}");
          }
        }
        else
        {
          context.Response.StatusCode = 401;
          context.Response.ContentType = "application/json";
          return context.Response.WriteAsync("{\"status\":401,\"statusMsg\":\"auth vaild fail\"}");
        }
      }
    }
  }

7.中间件暴露出去

public static class UseUseJwtMiddlewareExtensions
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// 权限检查
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="builder"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static IApplicationBuilder UseJwt(this IApplicationBuilder builder)
    {
      return builder.UseMiddleware<UseJwtMiddleware>();
    }
  }

8.在Startup.Configure中使用中间件:

app.UseJwt();

以1的配置为例:

除了请求 /auth/getToken 不需要加头信息外,其他的请求一律要求头信息中必须带着

userless:prefix (从Auth/GetToken中获取到的token)

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持脚本之家。

您可能感兴趣的文章:


  • 本文相关:
  • asp net core 2.1中如何使用jwt(从原理到精通)
  • asp net core2.1如何使用jwt从原理到精通(二)
  • asp.net core基于jwt认证的数据接口网关实例代码
  • asp.net core集成jwt的步骤记录
  • 使用asp.net.4.5.1+mvc5.0 搭建一个包含 ninject框架 项目
  • 较为全面的asp.net提交验证方案分析 (上)
  • 使用asp.net改变网页上图片颜色比如灰色变彩色
  • asp.net core mvc实现伪静态功能
  • repeater怎么实现多行间隔显示分隔符
  • asp.net也像winform程序一样运行的实现方法
  • asp.net mvc中的ajax应用
  • asp.net中cookie状态的说明与用法
  • indexof 和 indexofany的区别介绍
  • asp.net 文件上传 实时进度
  • 免责声明 - 关于我们 - 联系我们 - 广告联系 - 友情链接 - 帮助中心 - 频道导航
    Copyright © 2017 www.zgxue.com All Rights Reserved